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Evaluate the usefulness of psychological approaches to H&SC

By Kharis-Smith Mar 11, 2015 1842 Words
In this essay I will evaluate the usefulness of psychological approaches to health and social care. For the Humanistic approach I will assess the usefulness of a care assistant in a care home treating the whole person and in a hospital a nurse’s ability to ensure a patient’s physical, intellectual, emotional and social needs have been met (P.I.E.S). For Social Learning theory I will evaluate a nursery assistant in a nursery capability of being a positive role model and in a hospital a nurse’s role of carrying out anti- discriminatory practice. For the Behaviourist approach I will judge the usefulness of a key worker challenging student’s behaviour in a school and a school nurse’s capability of shaping behaviour. The positives of the Humanistic approach is that it is easy to learn and apply for care assistants in a care home (, 2012). This may be due to residents being at the care home for longer periods, providing time for the care assistant to build a positive relationship with the residents. The care worker provides a positive environment for the resident to live in, by treating residents as individuals, giving freedom to residents to make their own decisions about their wellbeing and lifestyle; while also being able to provide support as required. If the care assistant applies the humanistic approach in practice, the care worker satisfies Maslow’s hierarchy of needs; therefore providing a perfect environment for an individual to self-actualise. A negative is that the care assistant would need to adopt the principles of the humanistic approach at all times, preventing mixed messages being sent to residents and the care worker would need to invest a lot of time to carry out the approach. In both settings I assume that the Humanistic approach is easy to apply as the role of a care assistant and a nurse is to care for others, by getting into the profession the individual will build on their good qualities such as learning to be compassionate and empathetic towards others. However the Humanistic approach could also be difficult to apply in both settings, as at point of employment to be able to judge that the future employee has humanistic qualities. To combine a professional approach whilst being compassionate to individual receiving the care, can be very draining on the caregiver. It is important for the care giver to get the right balance. To apply the Humanistic approach in each settings, is dependent on good staffing levels as the approach is time consuming. In the care home the assistants have tasks that they need to complete and it is time orientated, so the carer might not have time to carry out the approach properly. The positives of nurses using the Humanistic approach in hospitals is throughout the day nurses carry out regular checks which are easy to follow. The nurses see each patient typically hourly, to check the patients are eating, personal hygiene and skin integrity (B.Fitzsimons, 2011). Nurses also monitor vital signs for example blood pressure, to ensure the patient’s physical wellbeing is observed and action is taken if the patient deteriorates. Therefore the patient’s essential needs are met. The negatives to this approach is that the staff need to be educated in this approach, as it is not something they would necessarily do. In addition the nurse’s job is task orientated, moving away from treating patients as individuals. Even though that patients are seen frequently, the time spent with each individual patient is limited. Therefore emotional and social needs may not be met due to a time limit, reducing the opportunity for the nurse to sit down and help resolve a patient’s problem. Nurses often refer jobs to others as they are busy (Brown.L, 2013). The positives of using the Social Learning Theory is that there are many opportunities to learn the right behaviour required through staff meetings, posters and observing others. In both settings the workers are also motivated to abide the rules as if they don’t show the right behaviour they may get a disciplinary or dismissed. If they do show the right behaviour the workers get to stay on at their job and may potentially reach a higher status. Dismissing workers for not showing the right behaviour means that the number of workers that show bad behaviour decreases, so the likely hood of good behaviour in the workplace increases, as there is no one to copy the bad behaviour displayed. The only negative is that this model relies heavily on attention and memory so the workers must remind themselves daily of what good behaviour is. A way to overcome this is by the workers writing the rules of good behaviour down and rereading it or if it is modelled in a video tape used in a staff meeting, to re-watch it. This approach is easy to follow it shows that one person behaviour has a strong influence on other workers, patients or children. The nurse just needs to remember what anti- discriminatory practice is and apply it to her job when working with different people. The care assistant just need to remember what the expected positive behaviour is and apply it when working with children. I feel that in a Hospital it would be harder to witness anti-discriminatory behaviour modelled by another nurse as it is usually busy on the wards, however in a nursery I think it would be easier to observe positive role modelling from another member of staff as the job is not as fast paced and many members of staff are in a room at once in a nursery. The Social Learning Theory may be difficult to follow in a nursery as the assistants need to have the ability to learn what bad behaviour is and self-reflect on their own behaviour. Some nursery assistants may view aspects of their behaviour as good, where as to others the care assistant displays bad behaviour. In addition the care assistant needs to learn to use positive role modelling constantly throughout the day, despite feeling angry or sad inside. Anti-discriminatory practice may also be difficult to apply to some nurses in a hospital that have strong view/assumptions about a certain group of people such as gays. As the individual has such a strong belief it would be hard to change their view and could potentially cause arguments. The positive of having a key worker in a special school applying the Behaviourist approach is that the worker is in most of the children’s classes, observing their behaviour. If a child behaves well the positive behaviour is rewarded and negative behaviour leads to punishment. Reinforcing rewards and punishment on the students, leads to the child learning by classical and operant conditioning what is right and wrong behaviour. The child will then hopefully adopt behaviour and stay out of trouble later on in life. A negative of using the Behaviourist approach in some specials schools is that sometimes the child sees attention in response to being naughty as a reward, so the key worker needs to find way to deal with this. It is quite easy to follow, at staff training the key worker will be taught what’s right and wrong behaviour. The rule is quite simple to remember, the worker can give rewards for good behaviour and punish bad behaviour. If the key worker does not know how to deal with a certain child’s behaviour they could always ask the teacher for help. The positives of a school nurse using the Behaviourist approach is that by the nurse directing the good and bad consequences at each individual it makes the message personal and memorable. The nurse does this by making the student aware that if they do not look after themselves the bad consequence can happen to them. A negative to the Behaviourist approach is that both classical and operant conditioning require reinforcement for the individual to learn. This means to effectively put the message across the nurse needs to do many assemblies on a certain subject, hold various class talks and display posters round the school. This will lead to the message being reinforced into the student, however the school nurse usually only holds one assembly or one class talk due to time constraints. The behaviourist approach is quite easy to follow the nurse just needs to get all the students attention and clearly state the good and bad consequences of a health issue. However this approach can be difficult to follow as in large assembly halls it could be difficult for the nurse to get everyone’s attention especially if the subject they are talking about is boring. Therefore if the child is not engaged, they will not learn. To overcome this the nurse must find a way of making the subject interesting for the students. To conclude the Humanistic approach is easy to follow for nurses and care assistants, by building on their caring qualities, compassion and empathy towards others. In both settings the effectiveness of the approach depends on the staffing levels as parts of the approach can be time consuming. For example whilst a care assistant sits down with a resident to talk about the residents’ concerns, there needs to be another member of staff looking after the other residents. I feel that the humanistic approach is easier to use in a care home due to less time constraints and the residents being in the care home for longer periods of time so the care worker can build a long trusting relationship with the individual. The Social Learning Theory is easy to follow once learnt what is the right behaviour. The staff are motivated to apply the right behaviour else it could result in disciplinary or being dismissed. This approach relies heavily on attention, remembering and applying. It can be difficult to follow for nurses with a strong belief about a certain group of people and changing their view point. It is also hard for nursery assistants to self-reflect on their own behaviour and change bad habits. For some care assistants it may be hard to remain a positive role model and not show what their really feeling inside. Lastly the Behaviourist approach has simple rules that are easy to adopt for a key worker and a school nurse. Reinforcement is key to this approach, this may be harder for a school nurse that has limited opportunity to fulfil this. In addition the school nurse also needs to think of ways to get the child’s attention when talking about topics, else the student will not listen and the message will not be successfully learnt. Bibliography

B.Fitzsimons. (2011, July 9). Intentional rounding: its role in supporting essential care. Retrieved from NursingTimes.Net: Brown.L. (2013, April 19). On a ward: do nurses spend enough time talking to patients? Retrieved from (2012, April 11). STRENGTHS & WEAKNESSES. Retrieved from Bandura's Social Learning Theory:

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